Testing Your Printed Circuit Board Components

There are different electrical elements that make up a printed circuit board. These include transistors, capacitors, resistors, diodes and fuses. These components should function properly in order to maximize the performance of a PCB. If one of the components is damaged, the performance might be degraded. Hence, it is important to monitor and test each component.



These are made up of insulating materials. The main function of capacitors is storing energy as electrostatic field. In printed circuit boards, they enable indirect current flow by blocking the direct current flow. When direct current voltage is applied, each conductive plate stores the electric charge. The current flow stops when the capacitors are full. The capacitor type is determined by the insulating material. Some of the insulating materials that are commonly used are silver mica, polycarbonate and ceramic.

In printed circuit boards, the board itself has a capacitor with different layers of power conductor, metal conductive areas and ground conductor, which stabilize a capacitor. The decoupling capacitors in PCBs, on the other hand, reduce the noise and lessen the impacts of some components on the board.

In testing a capacitor, you should remove the other end of the capacitor from the circuit. To avoid overloading of the device, the power of direct current voltage should be matched with the capacitor’s range. When you apply the voltage, there are different possible outcomes. If there is a leakage, the meter reading will register high followed by dropping low again. If the capacitor is open or has too low capacitance, the meter will register no jump.


A resistor is a small electronic device that has two terminals. It is responsible for transmitting electric current to create voltage. An ohmmeter is used to test the resistor. You should first isolate the resistor to establish accurate reading. Next, you should connect the multi-meter to a specific resistor. Then, run a test. If the resistor is open, it will acquire an output value higher than 0.6 volts.


A diode is an electrical device that transmits current in a single direction. It is composed of two semi-conductive materials on both ends: n-type and p-type. While transmitting current in a single direction, diode blocks current in the opposite direction.

P-C-BIt can be a sensitive operation to test a diode. If done improperly, it can cause permanent damage. It is always recommended to seek help from professionals before testing any electrical components. When you are ready in testing the diode, you should disconnect its one end from the board. Next, identify the black and red meter probes with an analog meter. Then, connect the red probe to the anode and the black probe to the cathode. Set the meter reading between 1 and 10 ohms. If the diode is open, the meter will register no reading. If the diode is leaky, the meter will register two readings. If there is a forward bias, the meter will register some resistance.


Fuses are usually located at the PCB input. When there is overvoltage, the materials inside the fuse melt. Thus, it prevents the electric components from getting burn.

Before testing the fuses, make sure that the main electricity is switched off. In testing the fuses, you need to use an analog meter. You should first set the meter to X1 Ohm range. Then, place the probes either way. You can connect the black test probe to one end cap and the red probe to the other end. If the meter registers a reading, the fuse is in good condition. It does not need a replacement. If the meter registers no reading, the fuse might have an opened circuit.

Dependability of a Portable Storage Container

Container-houseWhat’s so good about metal storage containers nowadays? There are more options to choose from including portable storage container. Unlike before, you need to travel and check the different storagecontainer facilities to get the best one in your opinion. You need to see if they have what it takes to safeguard your things all day and even during weekends and holidays. If you need to retrieve something from your container, you need to travel just to get it.


Now, you can have your own storage container which also comes with tight security feature right in your property. You don’t have to go far or make the trip just to access the things that you kept inside your storagecontainer. You just need to take a few steps and you can retrieve the things you need. It is also easier for you to store away the things that you don’t need around the house but still need those for future use.

The Versatility of the Metal Storage Container

The portable storage container can efficiently keep your belongings safe and protected. You can keep a lot of things in your container and you only need to make sure that rust won’t invade your metal.

You can turn your metal container into a study room where you can have almost unlimited access to a calm and peaceful surrounding. The metal container can keep noise under control.

You can also turn your container into an office or even a place where you can do business. You can even turn it into a hobby room and play room for your little ones; but make sure that when they are playing in the storage container, there is always someone who keeps them company.

With a bit of imagination, you can turn your container into something that you really need.

More Safe and Secure

The modern storage containers are made of steel and come with a tighter security feature that you will surely appreciate. Your container is completely safe in your property and you can still choose to add more security if you still feel like you have to.

Great for Moving

If you already own a portable storage container and you need to move to another place, then all you need to do is pack your important stuff inside your container and hire a hauler to help you transport your container. It is more convenient if you can pack all of your things inside. If not, you can leave the less important ones out and hire a moving company to transport it to your destination.

Amazing Help when you are Selling your House

ContainerIf you want to sell your house without any intention of moving out until the last minute, then renting a storage container where you can store away some of your stuff is a practical thing to do. You want to make your house is presentable to possible clients and you can only do that if you don’t have so much stuff inside. You need to make the house look organized and fresh as if no one has lived in it.

Transferring your important things in a storage container can also make you feel at ease whenever someone tries to inspect your house. You can be certain that your valuables are intact with you.

During Renovation

It is hard to get on with your renovation if you have so much stuff in your house and you need to be there to see if everything goes according to your specifications. You can rent a portable container to store your things for the meantime and make the workers do their job with ease.

There are so many things that a portable storage container can provide. Visit moveablecontainer for more details of portable storage container. It is an investment that you will cherish for the rest of your life.

Are you looking a good portable storage container, so you can visit our website www.moveablecontainer.com and get more details about portable containers.

www.challengecoins4less.com: Challenge Coins, A Tradition of Pride, Excellence & Glory

Carrying a challenge coin is one of the many well-respected traditions in the military. These coins are small tokens which are created to build camaraderie among members of a military unit. Today, the tradition of challenge coin has spread not only to different military units but even to different kinds of civilian organizations. Former US Presidents like Bill Clinton and George W. Bush also have showcased a lot of silver coins to the viewing public. President Clinton has a display of challenge coins found at his office in the White House. Meanwhile, President Bush got a challenge coin from a US military unit that was stationed in Iraq in 2007. And even the current President, Barack Obama, offered challenge coins in memory of the soldiers who died during the shooting incident that happened in Fort Hood.

Challenge CoinsIn June 2011, the then Secretary of Defense Robert Gates visited the military bases in Afghanistan before his impending retirement. It appeared though that he was just having a simple handshake with a number of military men and women as a sign of mutual respect. However, it was actually a secret handshake with a surprise inside for the recipient. The soldiers were secretly handed with special Secretary of Defense challenge coins.

It is not always through a secret handshake that a challenge coin is passed –

But it is the tradition of carrying a challenge coin that any member of an honorable or prestigious organization wants to uphold. It is indeed a tradition of excellence. However, thanks largely to the internet and social media, everyone’s now getting into the tradition. It is not uncommon today for any police or fire department to have their own custom coins.

Whether you are a soldier, a policeman, a fireman or any kind of a civilian employee, you want to be known as a part of your prestigious group or company. Various corporations have come up with their own custom coins for their own employees. Civic organizations as well like the Lions Club and The Boy Scouts have their own coins too. Even the Harley Davidson motorcycle riders, Star Wars Cos players of the 501st Legion and Linux users came up with their own customized challenge coins. Everyone seems to have that need to be a part of a prestigious group or club. Now, you may want to join the bandwagon. You don’t want yourself and your organization to be left behind. This excellent tradition can also continue within your organization.

At www.challengecoins4less.com, we can help you achieve that goal because we know that you only want the best. You’ve come to the right website. At www.challengecoins4less.com, you can find wonderful creations of challenge coins. You will be getting custom coins with high quality and reasonable prices. Moreover, you will always be treated as a valued customer. Whatever kind of challenge coins that you can imagine, we can create them for you. There are different styles and sizes, some even come in unusual shapes. Generally, the coins are made of pewter, copper or nickel and with a variety of finishes available. Limited edition coins can also be plated in either silver or gold. The designs can include either or both the insignia or motto of your organization.

Since we treat you as a valued customer, we don’t want to waste any of your time –


At www.challengecoins4less.com, All_challenge_coinswe want to be sure that you will get exactly the design that you want to have. You won’t be charged for the coin designs and the revisions are free as well. We guarantee fast delivery of your orders and you will be absolutely satisfied with our products and services. If you need coins or medallions for your unit to carry and display with honor and pride, we can all provide them for you. If you are looking to have custom coins as well for policemen or firefighters, we can do it for you. You can also have coins for your businesses with matching corporate logos or mottos in creative details. We are glad to meet all your needs for your custom challenge coins!

At www.challengecoins4less.com, ordering custom coins is quick, fun and easy. You just need to contact us so we can help you right-away. Just fill out our form for our free quotation. You can also send an email to coins@challengecoins4less.com. You may also call us at 855-272-8451 without any toll fee at all. Once we get approval from you for the final design of your custom coins, we will send your order to our factory immediately. And after just 14 to 17 days, you will receive your custom coins already! Just always remember that our designs and revisions are free of charge. So hurry now and contact us! We are more than happy to serve you! At www.challengecoins4less.com, you are a valued customer!

Importance of Custom embroidered Patches

How can we distinguish in a group of soldiers who the Navy, Army, Air Force, or Marine personnel are if they are wearing the same camouflage uniforms? Moreover, how can we identify the units where those soldiers belong? Schools and grade levels of school children wearing the same white blouses and shirts is difficult to identify.

Distinguishing the martial arts clubs of participants in a taekwondo competition wearing the same white or black uniforms may not be that easy. Recognizing Police officers manning the traffic may not be easy for motorists asking for directions or even by those receiving tickets for violations. These questions and many more are answerable only by a simple yet very effective solution, and that is the use of patches, specifically custom embroidered patches.

Similar to an identification card, the primary purpose of a patch is for identification:

With the use of patches, identifying members of a group or an organization will not be difficult. Identifying the group or the organization itself using patches will be more convenient. Let us take for instance, a sales representative in a car showroom offering a prospective buyer. In his uniform are patches bearing the company logo and his name. It would be pleasing to the client seeing the representative in his uniform and even without formal introduction can call the representative by his name. On the opposite side, a customer not satisfied with the services rendered him will not have difficulty in naming any personnel should he file a complaint to management.


Custom embroidered patches also serve as morale booster to team members. Wearing a uniform bearing the name of a group or organization makes one feel that he or she belongs to that group. A member wearing a uniform with the group’s logo most of the time feels proud to be a part of that group. With that perspective, it is most likely that the group will be elated and the member more inspired to contribute to the group’s objectives.

Several decades ago, custom embroidered patches played an important role in a generation where love and peace are the pleadings. That was the time when the United States of America was at war with North Vietnam. It was also during those days that street protests were rampant. That was also the time when a youth generation was born, the so-called Hippies. With their departure from the usual American outfits, they introduced a fashion style identified only with them. Wearing military surplus outfits and jeans became their trademark.

Together with that fashion style was the integration of custom embroidered patches in their outfits. However, those patches aside from serving its primary purpose of identification also played an important role in expressing themselves. Patches depicting “love and peace” and “peace not war” among others are a common sight during that time. Their fashion style although different from the majority became a worldwide trend during that time.

In later years, after the Hippie generation, came another youth generation called Punks:

Ripped denim jeans and leather jackets replaced the old military outfits of the Hippies. During the time of the punks, the use of patches as identification still remained but expressions of love and peace were no longer the pleadings. Patches bearing the names of rock and roll bands were notable during that time.

Custom Embroidered Patches

Aside from being a tool for identification, patches, which are a part of fashion styles, also make a good reason for business. With the great demand for patches, entrepreneurs have an opportunity to make investments for patches.

Today, we all know that the patches’ primary purpose of identification is back. The very reason why at patches4less, we offer high-quality, durable, affordable, and artistically designed custom embroidered patches. Our patches are also available in sizes and shapes that you may require. We in patches4less together with our experienced design artists ensure that we will provide you with patches that will suit your needs.

We at patches4less offers high-quality custom embroidered patches with affordable price and artistically design

Motivational-Speaker-Success – Meet Garrison Wynn

It is not uncommon for businesses to hire the services of an inspiring speaker to aspire their employees back to their full potential. If the company’s efficiency is off-track, the staffs are not meeting the organization’s standards, or there are changes in the organization that are opposed by their associates; it is time to set a seminar hosted by a renowned inspirational public speaker to address the needs of the company.

Before anyone can invite a keynoter from Motivational-Speaker-Success to enlighten the management and the employees of a certain company, one must provide as much as information and background of the business. This will aid them in writing and delivering their speech according to the urgency of the program. Based from the information they can get, they can customize their services through creating activities and sharing real-life stories to motivate the employees to do what is vital to the best of the company.

There are inevitable reasons that hinder the competence of the employees that may affect the over-all performance of the organization.

It maybe from stress brought by the working environment they have every day or the repetitive work cycle of their career or it can be a discord within the department. For this reason, team building and seminars are devised to loosen up the strains of their staffs. The employees may need a break from their usual working environment and requires special training to appropriately handle stress and emotions.

Moticational Speaker

A job rotation is a good idea to the company but it may be oppose by workers that are hesitant to learn new skills. In this manner, an invaluable yet efficacious speech maker must be introduced. How do you find a great inspirational talker? To shed some light to your dilemma, here is our one-stop guide to find a suitable candidate for your team building and conferences – Motivational-Speaker-Success.

Only in our place at Motivational-Speaker-Success can you find a package deal rhetorician! Right, folks! We are talking our very own Garrison Wynn! If you are in a quest of finding a professional orator you are in the right direction. Garrison has a background in financial services, manufacturing and telecommunications and also a six years professional stand-up comedian. He can expertly engage to all kinds of audiences. He had already presented to the world’s reputable effective leaders and business developers from multi-billion manufacturers to the New York Stock Exchange.

With his charismatic performance he is the all-time favorite and in highly requested Motivational-Speaker-Success orator for companies’ seminars. He is acknowledged to deliver powerful, life-changing expertise on sales, manufacturing, marketing or executive leadership or what industry his clients’ belongs to. And he can creatively come-up with insights not only reserved to the employees but also to the top management of the companies with constant, applicable messages to influence and succeed.


Browse through our easily navigated website to view Garrison’s programs, business articles on customer services, leadership, sales and management; topics on areas of expertise, his marketing materials, and other miscellaneous sections that will also capture your attention. And under this section we created a special feature to help individuals or groups in searching a worthy speech maker. From the struggling experiences of our clients we noticed that our clients were looking for an outstanding and professional keynoter, and at the same time humorous that has that ability to influence the crowd to their full potential.

SpeakerFirst and foremost, booking a known orator will take one year advance depending on his credibility. As soon as there is a definite date, time, place and budget make a reservation as soon as possible. The choice of your orator depends on the budget that your company will be allocating. Canvass the kind of speech maker that the company is looking for. There are many potential candidates out there, but you need to be more specific to the needs of your target audience. A high price or a respectable name does not guarantee anyone of a successful seminar.

Browse in the internet the credentials of your chosen speech maker, read the testimonials on the person and watch videos of him/her to assert if the person matches your criteria. If you think the person is suitable, talk to the professional to determine if he/she can customize the program and provide him/her with the background of your company and your employees.

Motivational speaker has the ability to help the general spirit of your representatives and move them to improve. Contact here Motivational-Speaker-Success you can find out the great inspirational talker.

Golf Apparel And Accessories

When it comes to golf apparel, most people think of shirts, pants, shorts, vests, and jackets alone. They fail to remember important and useful accessories such as hats, visors, sunglasses, gloves, socks, and shoes.

If you want to look stylish yet still be able to play golf at your best, see to it that you have these accessories.

You need to wear a visor or hat whenever you play golf to keep the harmful rays of the sun out of your eyes. Exposing your eyes to direct sunlight can impair your vision, put you at risk of cataracts, and subsequently diminish your ability to play golf. Likewise, you need to wear sunglasses to protect your eyes and their surrounding skin.

Golf-ballGolfers, especially, tend to look into the sky to follow the trajectory of their ball. So if you want to see better and avoid glare, you need to wear sunglasses. If you want additional protection, you can get a pair that can protect your eyes against ultraviolet rays. Sunglasses are also very helpful in protecting your eyes against course hazards, including sand traps and water.

If you are just a beginner, you can wear standard sunglasses that go well with your golf apparel. But if you play frequently, you should opt for sunglasses that are especially designed for serious golfers. These sunglasses typically do not have rims to help improve your vision. They also usually come in wraparound styles to filter the light that comes in from the sides of your face.

You can also wear sunglasses with high contrast lenses if you want to be able to search for golf balls more quickly and easily. It is up to you what type of sunglasses you want to wear. Just make sure that they fit you snugly. They should not slip down your nose easily, especially when you sweat. As a golfer, you tend to look at the ground several times over the course of a game, so this is very important.

When it comes to gloves, you do not necessarily need to wear two. You can wear just one glove to help improve your grip on your club. If you are left-handed, you should wear a glove on your right hand. Conversely, if you are right-handed, you should wear a glove on your left hand. Make sure that your glove fits you well. It should neither be too tight nor too loose.

Your gloves must fit like your second skin. You can find different sizes, ranging from small to double XL. If you have wide palms and short fingers, you can wear cadet gloves. When choosing gloves, you may also want to consider certain factors, such as adjust ability and ventilation. You can wear gloves with adjustable wrists and Velcro fasteners, for instance.

Golf BallAside from improving your grip, your gloves can also offer you protection from the sun. They can also help you prevent blisters. You can choose gloves that are made with synthetic leather, genuine leather, or a combination of both. If you have long fingernails or you simply want to feel the upper handle of your club in your fingers, you can choose finger less gloves.

Your golf apparel will not be complete without the right golf socks and shoes. While you can simply wear any pair of athletic socks, you need to be meticulous when choosing golf shoes. You can wear spiked or spikeless golf shoes. You can also wear golf cleats that provide good traction on grass, sand, and mud among other types of terrain.

Nonetheless, you have to see to it that your golf shoes do not only look good with the rest of your golf apparel. They should also be sturdy, comfortable, and breathable. They should also be able to offer you mid foot support and shock absorption.

Golf Apparel are determination various golf accessories like golf caps, shoes, watches, jewelry, gloves and many more. If you play golf, you can buy your golf apparel at rockbottomgolf.com.

Tips on Article Writing

professionalArticle writing is one of the work-from-home jobs that are growing even more and more popular today. Because of the internet, several sites have turned to freelancers to write their website articles for them. With a vast selection of topics, including sports, entertainment, health, and technology, article writing has not only become profitable, but also lets the writers explore their area of interest or expertise. Though a person must make no mistake – writing a good article is hard.  The amount of work that a writer puts in each individual article he writes takes a fair amount of time and research.

While articles found on the internet could talk about different things, they share many common characteristics. Here are some tips for those aspiring to get into article writing, and how to write a really good article.

  • The type of article that a person wants to write

Aside from thinking of the topics that a person wants to write about, there are also the types of articles that could be used to disseminate the information. Some of the common types of articles that could be found all over the internet include:

  • News articles – articles about recent events.
  • Feature articles – slightly different from a news article, this type of article present information in a less formal, more entertaining way.
  • Editorial articles – articles that express the writer’s thoughts and opinions about a certain topic. Editorials are more about making other people think about the topic being discussed or persuading them to the writer’s line of thinking.
  • How-To articles – articles that explain clearly how to do something. It could be how to repair a certain object, how to cook a dish, or how to make something.
  • Profile articles – profiles are typically used to give information about a certain person. Lots of background research could be involved in writing profiles, such as interviews, looking up news (especially if the person being written about is a celebrity), and doing research on the internet.
  • Narrowing down the list of topics

Writing TepAnother thing that person needs to do is narrow down what type of topics he wants to write about. Having brainstorming sessions where he writes what sort of things he could talk about is a good way of picking out which topics he could get started on and which ones he could shelve for later. In article writing, he does not only have to think about the topic and type of article he is to write, but also the audience he is writing for.  Questions such as who the target audience is, what kind of writing style they’ll most likely flock to, and what will get them to start talking about and sharing the article are good points to think over. Other questions that a writer could mull over are:

  • What interests him about the topic?
  • Is there anything about the topic that people don’t talk about or is often overlooked?
  • What kind of information does the writer want people to know about the topic?
  • Know the types of research material that could be utilized

A good writer knows that his research material isn’t restricted to the internet. While search engines and online encyclopedias are good sources of material, he could also do research by going to the library, interviewing people, and reading newspapers and periodicals. He should also know if the information he is getting is credible or not, and try to sort out the material that is relevant to his articles once he has gathered them all. The key to getting audiences is to present something that may not be all that original in a new way and with a fresh perspective.